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Ophrys apifera

Ophrys apifera2

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Orchideae
SubTribe: Orchidinae
Genus: Ophrys
Species: Ophrys apifera
Alliance: Orchis
Binomial name
Ophrys apifera
Hudson 1761


Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid) is a plant of the family Orchidaceae, found in western and central Europe, the Mediterranean region, and east through Turkey to the Caucasus.

DistributionEdit

Ophrys apifera is a perennial, temperate climate species of orchid generally found growing on semi-dry turf, on limestone, calcareous dunes or in open areas in woodland, from sea level up to around 1800 metres in elevation. The Bee Orchid is a common plant around the Mediterranean eastwards to the Black Sea but is less common in its northern range being uncommon or local in Germany and Ireland. In the UK it has a distinct southern preference being more common in southern England, but spreading north in recent decades with colonisation of Northumberland (often on old mine spoil heaps and other semi-reclaimed industrial sites) and also one site in southern Scotland. In some countries the plants have protected status. The Bee Orchid is the county flower of Bedfordshire.

DescriptionEdit

They are unusual in that in some years they appear in great numbers, then sometimes only reappear after an absence of many years. This hardy orchid grows to a height of 30 cm. They live in a symbiotic relationship with mycorrhiza (a soil-dwelling fungus).

The Bee Orchid develops small rosettes of leaves in autumn. They slowly continue to grow during winter. The leaves are alternate, elliptical and pointed. Flowers appear the following year. Each year, it produces from one to ten flowers on a spike, blooming from June to July. The flowers are almost exclusively self-pollinating in the northern ranges of the plant's distribution, while pollination by the solitary bee Eucera occurs in the Mediterranean area. The sepals are marginal and spread out, coloured mauve to pink, often with a greenish central line. The flower lip is furry to the touch and is quite variable in the pattern of coloration, but is usually brownish-red with yellow markings.

The pollinia are produced on the inner face of a greenish column overhanging the lip, ready to deposit the pollen on visiting bees. Eucera bees in the past have influenced the evolution of bee orchids. Male bees, over many generations of cumulative orchid evolution, have favoured plants with the most female-bee-shaped lip through trying to copulate with flowers, and hence carrying pollen.

CultureEdit

Plants prefer well-drained low-fertility soils and areas with partial shade. Plants are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides and transplanting because it kills symbiotic fungus. The plant is usually propagated through seed culture. This species is tolerant of cool but not cold growing conditions. Divide plant when flower fades.

VaritiesEdit

ImageNameDescription
Ophrys-apifera alba Ophrys apifera var. alba Sepals and petals are white with a green strip
Ophrys apifera var. aurita Ophrys apifera var. aurita
((Moggr.) Gremli (1887))
Petals are longer
Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis
(S. Schwegler & Matthies)
Petals and sepals are white. Lip is green
Ophrys apifera var botteronii Ophrys apifera var botteronii
((Chodat) Brand (1905))
Lip is different
Ophrys apifera1 Ophrys apifera variant Petals and sepals are pink, lip is brown with two streaks of yellow which connect.
Ophrys apifera0 Ophrys apifera variant Flower is peloric. Petals are pink and sepals are curved, dark brown with white. Lip is dark brown with green markings
Ophrys apifera3 Ophrys apifera variant Flower is peloric. Petals and sepals are pink with a green streak. Lip is also similar to petal.
Ophrys apifera4 Ophrys apifera variant Petals and sepals are pink with greens streaks. Lip has two yellow steaks that form a upsidown U shape
Ophrys apifera5 Ophrys apifera variant Petals are pink, Lip is white with light brown pigments

NamingEdit

Common Name: Bee orchid, The Bee Ophyrs

SynonymsEdit

  1. Arachnites apifera Tod. 1791
  2. Ophrys albiflora Spruner ex Boiss 1882
  3. Ophrys apifera f. flavescens (Rosbach) P.D.Sell in P.D.Sell & G.Murrell 1996
  4. Ophrys apifera f. trollii (Hegetschw.) P.D.Sell in P.D.Sell & G.Murrell 1996
  5. Ophrys apifera subsp. austriaca (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) K.Richt 1890
  6. Ophrys apifera subsp. chlorantha (Hegetschw.) Arcang 1882
  7. Ophrys apifera subsp. trollii (Hegetschw.) O.Bolòs 1991
  8. Ophrys apifera var. almaracensis Pérez-Chisc 1990 publ. 1991
  9. Ophrys apifera var. aurita (Moggr.) Gremli 1887
  10. Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis S.Schwegler & Matthies 2004
  11. Ophrys apifera var. belgarum Turner Ettl 1998
  12. Ophrys apifera var. chlorantha (Hegetschw.) K.Richt 1890
  13. Ophrys apifera var. flavescens Rosbach 1880
  14. Ophrys apifera var. fulvofusca M.P.Grasso & Scrugli 1987
  15. Ophrys apifera var. immaculata Bréb 1849
  16. Ophrys apifera var. muteliae Mutel 1835
  17. Ophrys apifera var. tilaventina Nonis & Liverani 1997
  18. Ophrys apifera var. trollii (Hegetschw.) Rchb.f. 1851
  19. Ophrys aquisgranensis Kaltenb 1850
  20. Ophrys arachnites Mill. 1768
  21. Ophrys austriaca Wiesb. ex Dichtl 1883
  22. Ophrys chlorantha Hegetschw 1840
  23. Ophrys epeirophora Peter 1883
  24. Ophrys immaculata (Bréb.) O.Nägeli 1916
  25. Ophrys insectifera L. in part 1753
  26. Ophrys insectifera subvar. aurita Moggr. 1869
  27. Ophrys penedensis Kalkhoff 1914
  28. Ophrys purpurea Tausch 1831
  29. Ophrys ripaensis Porta 1905
  30. Ophrys rostrata Ten. 1830
  31. Ophrys trollii Hegetschw. 1840
  32. Orchis apifera (Huds.) Salisb. 1796;

ReferencesEdit

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