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Ophrys

Ophrys lutea plate
A plate of Ophrys Lutea

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Orchideae
SubTribe: Orchidinae
Alliance: Orchis
Genus: Ophrys
L. 1753
Type Species
Ophrys insectifera


The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae. There are many natural hybrids. The type species is Ophrys insectifera L.1753

Ophrys was first mentioned in the book "Natural History" by Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD).

DistributionEdit

They are terrestrial or ground orchids from central to South Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, up to the Caucasus Mountains, but mostly around the Mediterranean. They are considered the most important group of European terrestrial orchids.

DescriptionEdit

During summer all Ophrys orchids are dormant as an underground bulbous tuber, which serves as a food reserve. In late summer/autumn they develop a rosette of leaves. Also a new tuber starts to grow and matures until the following spring; the old tuber slowly dies. The next spring the flowering stem starts to grow. During flowering the leaves already start to wither.

Most Ophrys orchids are dependent on symbiotic fungi. Because of this, some species only develop small alternate leaves. Transplanting specimens, especially wild specimens, is difficult, sometimes impossible, due to this symbiosis. The shiny, basal leaves have a green or bluish color.

The flowers surpass all other European orchids. Two to twelve flowers grow on an erect stem with basal leaves. They are absolutely unique not only because of their unequaled beauty, color range and exceptional forms, but also because of the ingenuity by which they attract insects. Their lip mimics several insects, such as that of a bee, a wasp, or a beetle, attracting and duping the right pollinator. This visual cue serves as a close-range attractant. This pollination mimicry is enhanced by producing the scent of the receptive female insect. This is the long-range attractant. These insect pheromones cause them to approach and investigate the flowers more closely. This all happens in a period that only males are active and females haven't appeared yet.

The Bumblebee Orchid (Ophrys bombyliflora) is a typical example. It has flowers that look and smell so much like female Bumble Bees that males flying nearby are irresistibly drawn in by this chemical signal, stimulating them sexually. The insect gets so excited that he starts to copulate with the flower. This is termed pseudocopulation. The firmness, the smoothness and the velvety hairs of the lip are a further incentive for the insect to enter the flower. The pollinia inadvertently stick to the head or the abdomen of the male bumblebee. On visiting another orchid of the same species, the bumblebee pollinates its sticky stigma with the pollinia. The filaments of the pollinia have, during transport, taken such a position that the waxy pollen are able to stick to the stigma. Such is the refinement of the reproduction. If the filaments hadn’t taken the new position, the pollinia could not have pollinated the new orchid.

The root is ediable and grinded into a powder called salep. Salep is very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread. Tubers for creating salep should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed.

PollinationEdit

Every Ophrys orchid has its own pollinator insect and is completely dependent on this species for its survival. Furthermore, duped males are not likely to return. They even ignore other plants of the same species. Therefore, only about 10% of an Ophrys population gets pollinated. This is enough to preserve the population, since each Ophrys orchid produces about 12,000 minute seeds.


CultureEdit

Ophrys are usually grown from seeds because they rely on a symbiotic fungus to grow. Plants prefer well-drained low-fertility soils and areas with partial shade. Plants are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides and transplanting because it kills symbiotic fungus. The plant is usually propagated through seed culture. This species is cool to intermediate growing. Divide plant when flower fades.

NamingEdit

They are referred to as the "Bee orchids" due to the flowers of some species resemblance to the furry bodies of Bumble Bees and other insects. Their scientific name is derived from the Greek word "ophrys", meaning "eyebrow", referring to the furry edges of the lips of several species.

SynonymsEdit

  1. Arachnites F.W.Schmidt 1793
  2. Myodium Salisbury 1812

Sub sectionsEdit

The genus has been subdivided in several sections and subsections :

  • Ophrys sect. Apiferae Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Argolicae Verm. ex Quentin
    • Ophrys subsect. Atticae Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Bertoloniorum Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Mammosae Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Reinholdiae Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Tenthrediniferae Quentin
  • Ophrys sect. Umbilicatae Quentin

SpeciesEdit

  • Ophrys alasiatica Kreutz 2002
  • Ophrys apifera Huds. 1762
  • Ophrys argolica Fleischm. 1919
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. aegaea (Kalteisen & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. argolica
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. biscutella (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Kreutz 2004
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. crabronifera (Sebast. & Mauri) Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. elegans (Renz) E.Nelson 1962
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. lesbis (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. lucis (Kalteisen & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 2002
  • Ophrys atlantica Munby 1856
  • Ophrys bombyliflora Link 1800
  • Ophrys bertolonii Moretti, 1823.
  • Ophrys cilicica Schltr. 1923
  • Ophrys clara F.M.Vázquez & S.Ramos 2005
  • Ophrys delforgei Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 2006
  • Ophrys druentica P.Delforge & Viglione 2006
  • Ophrys ferrum-equinum Desf.,1807
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. ferrum-equinum.
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. gottfriediana (Renz) E.Nelson, 1962
  • Ophrys flavomarginata (Renz) H.Baumann & Künkele, 1981
  • Ophrys fuciflora (F.W.Schmidt) Moench'1802
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. andria (P.Delforge) Faurh. 2005
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. apulica O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1969
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. biancae (Tod.) Faurh. 2005
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) B.Willing & E.Willing 1975
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. candica E.Nelson ex Soó 1978
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. chestermanii (J.J.Wood) H.Blatt & W.Wirth 1990
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior (Paulus) R.Engel & Quentin 1997
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. fuciflora
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lacaitae (Lojac.) Soó 1973
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. oxyrrhynchos (Tod.) Soó 1927
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. parvimaculata O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1970
  • Ophrys fusca Link 1799
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. blitopertha (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen 2002
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. cinereophila (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. fusca
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. iricolor (Desf.) K.Richt. 1890
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. pallida (Raf.) E.G.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus 1929
  • Ophrys insectifera L. 1753
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. aymoninii Breistr' 1981
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. insectifera
    • Ophrys insectifera nothosubsp. tytecaeana P.Delforge 1983
  • Ophrys isaura Renz & Taubenheim 1980
  • Ophrys kojurensis Gölz 2006
  • Ophrys kopetdagensis K.P.Popov & Neshat. 1982
  • Ophrys kotschyi H.Fleischm. & Soó 1926
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. ariadnae (Paulus) Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. cretica (Soó) H.Sund. 1975
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. kotschyi
  • Ophrys latakiana M.Schönfelder & H.Schönfelder 2001
  • Ophrys lepida S.Moingeon & J.-M.Moingeon 2005
  • Ophrys lunulata Parl. 1838
  • Ophrys lutea (Gouan) Cav. 1793
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. galilaea (H.Fleischm. & Bornm.) Soó 1926
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. melena Renz 1928
  • Ophrys lycia Renz & Taubenheim 1980
  • Ophrys omegaifera Fleischm. 1925
    • Ophrys omegaifera var. basilissa (C.Alibertis, A.Alibertis & H.R.Reinhard) Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. dyris (Maire) Del Prete 1984
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. fleischmannii (Hayek) Del Prete 1984
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. hayekii (H.Fleischm. & Soó) Kreutz 2004
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. israelitica (H.Baumann & Künkele) G.Morschek & K.Morschek 1996
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. omegaifera
  • Ophrys pseudoatrata S.Hertel & Presser 2006
  • Ophrys pseudomammosa Renz 1928
  • Ophrys reinholdii Spruner ex Fleischm. 1908
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. antiochiana (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz 2005
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. reinholdii
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii (Fleischm.) E.Nelson 1962
  • Ophrys schulzei Bornm. & Fleischm. 1911
  • Ophrys scolopax Cav. 1793
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire 1959
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. conradiae (Melki & Deschâtres) H.Baumann & al.1995
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta (Steven) E.G.Camus 1908
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson 1962
    • Ophrys scolopax var. minutula (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 1997
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. rhodia (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 1997
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. scolopax
  • Ophrys speculum Link 1799
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. lusitanica O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1969
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. regis-ferdinandii (Acht. & Kellerer ex Renz) Soó 1970
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. speculum
  • Ophrys sphegodes Mill 1768
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aesculapii (Renz) Soó ex J.J.Wood 1980
    • Ophrys sphegodes var. argentaria (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Faurh. 2002
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) E.Mayer 1952
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aveyronensis J.J.Wood 1983
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. cretensis H.Baumann & Künkele 1986
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. epirotica (Renz) Gölz & H.R.Reinhard 1983
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. gortynia H.Baumann & Künkele 1986
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) Soó & D.M.Moore 1978
    • Ophrys sphegodes nothosubsp. jeanpertii (E.G.Camus) Del Prete & Conte 1980
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) Bech. 1925
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soó ex E.Nelson 1962
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. passionis (Sennen ex Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Sanz & Nuet 1995
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sipontensis (R.Lorenz & Gembardt) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 2005
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sphegodes
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. spruneri (Nyman) E.Nelson 1962
  • Ophrys tenthredinifera Willd. 1805
  • Ophrys turcomanica Renz 1978
  • Ophrys umbilicata Desf. 1807
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. bucephala (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Biel 1999
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. umbilicata

Natural HybridsEdit

  • Ophrys × aghemanii (O. scolopax subsp. cornuta × O. turcomanica) (Iran).
  • Ophrys × albertiana (O. apifera × O. fuciflora) (Europe).
    • Ophrys × albertiana nothosubsp. albertiana (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × albertiana nothosubsp. morellensis (O. apifera × O. holoserica ssp. candica) (Italy) Tuber geophyte.
  • Ophrys × alibertiana (O. spruneri × O. tenthredinifera) (Crete).
  • Ophrys × ambrosii (O. fusca ssp. minima × O. vasconica) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × angelensis (O. incubacea × O. promontorii) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × anomala (O. maxima × O. scolopax ssp. heldreichii) (Crete)
  • Ophrys × apicula (O. insectifera × O. sphegodes ssp. araneola) (Europe).
    • Ophrys × apicula nothosubsp. apicula (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × apicula nothosubsp. fabrei (O. insectifera subsp. aymoninii × O. sphegodes subsp. arenosa) (Europe). Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × aquilana(O. bertolonii × O. fuciflora × O. sphegodes)
  • Ophrys × argentariensis (O. crabronifera × O. incubacea) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × arachnitiformis (O. fuciflora × O. sphegodes) (Europa, Asia Minor, Syria).
    • Ophrys arachnitiformis subsp. archipelagi (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
    • Ophrys arachnitiformis subsp. cilentana (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Kreutz
  • Ophrys × azurea (O. promontorii × O. pseudobertolonii) (Italy).
  • Ophrys x barbaricina (. (O.ciliata x O.morisii). (Sardinia)
  • Ophrys × barlae (O. bertolonii × O. incubacea) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × bastianii (O. magniflora × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × battandieri (O. fusca × O. lutea) (NW. Africa).
  • Ophrys × baumanniana (O. cretica × O. sphegodes) (Crete)
  • Ophrys × bayeri (O. fusca × O. omegaifera ssp. fleischmannii) (Cyprus).
  • Ophrys × benoitiana (O. incubacea × O. sphegodes ssp. lunulata) (Sicily).
  • Ophrys × bergonii (O. saratoi × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × bernardii (O. aveyronensis × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × bilineata (O. bertolonii × O. sphegodes) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × bodegomii (O. passionis × O. tenthredinifera) (Spain).
  • Ophrys × borakisiana (O. fusca × O. mammosa) (E. Aegean Is.).
  • Ophrys × borgersiae (O. reinholdii × O. spruneri) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × boscoquartensis (O. biscutella × O. sphegodes) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × bourlieri (O. iricolor × O. lutea × O. tenthredinifera). (N. Africa).
  • Ophrys × braunblanquetiana (O. fusca × O. incubacea) (Corse, Italy).
  • Ophrys × broeckii (O. arachnitiformis × O. araneola) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × burneriana (O. sphegodes ssp. cretensis × O. spruneri) (Crete)
  • Ophrys × campolati (O. promontorii × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy.
  • Ophrys × camusii (O. exaltata × O. sphegodes) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × carica (O. ferrum-equinum × O. holosericea) (Turkey.
  • Ophrys × carpinensis (O. biscutella × O. scolopax ssp. cornuta) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × carquierannensis (O. exaltata ssp. arachnitiformis × O. fusca) (France).
  • Ophrys × cascalesii (O. sphegodes ssp. araneola × O. passionis) (France).
  • Ophrys × chiesesica (O. drumana × O. fuciflora) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × chimaera (O. bertolonii × O. sulcata) (Europe)
  • Ophrys × chobautii (O. lutea × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (SW. Europe).
  • Ophrys × circaea (O. apifera × O. bombyliflora) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × clapensis (O. bombyliflora × O. lutea) (France).
  • Ophrys × composita (O. scolopax × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × corcyrensis (O. ferrum-equinum × O. sphegodes) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × cortesii (O. incubacea × O. araneola) (France)
  • Ophrys × cosana (O. bombyliflora × O. incubacea) (France)
  • Ophrys × costei (O. aveyronensis × O. passionis) (France)
  • Ophrys × couloniana (O. bertolonii × O. promontorii) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × cranbrookeana (O. exaltata ssp. arachnitiformis × O. scolopax) (France).
  • Ophrys × cugniensis (O. bertolonii × O. lutea) (Sicilia).
  • Ophrys × daneschianum (O. bertoloniiformis × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × delphinensis (O. argolica × O. scolopax ssp. cornuta) (S. Greece).
  • Ophrys x denisiana ((O.bertolonii subsp. explanata x O.ciliata subsp. ciliata) (Sicilia)
  • Ophrys × devenensis (O. holosericea × O. insectifera) (Europe).
  • Ophrys × diakoptensis (O. delphinensis × O. spruneri) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × domitia (O. bombyliflora × O. lutea ssp. pseudospeculum) (France)
  • Ophrys × domus-maria (O. apifera var. ? apifera × O. morisii) (France)
  • Ophrys × duvigneaudiana (O. araneola × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (France)
  • Ophrys × eliasii (O. fusca × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (S. Europe).
    • Ophrys × eliasii nothosubsp. conimbricensis (O. fusca × O. vernixia) (Portugal) Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × eliasii nothosubsp. eliasii (S. Europe). Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × emmae (O. bertolonii × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × epidavrensis (O. argolica × O. sphegodes ssp. aesculapii) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × estacensis (O. fuciflora × O. splendida) (France)
  • Ophrys × ettlingeriana (O. argolica × O. umblicata ssp. attica) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × extorris (O. holosericea × O. insectifera × O. sphegodes) (Austria).
  • Ophrys × fabrei (O. araneola × O. aymoninii) (France)
  • Ophrys × fayacensis (O. arachnitiformis × O. provincialis) (France)
  • Ophrys × feldwegiana (O. ferrum-equinum × O. tenthredinifera) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × fernandii (O. bombyliflora × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (France).
  • Ophrys × ferruginea (O. fusca × O. holoserica) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × flahaultii (O. apifera var. ? apifera × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × flavicans (O. bertolonii × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × gauthieri (O. fusca ssp. fusca × O. lutea ssp. lutea) (France)
  • Ophrys × godferyana (O. arachnitiformis × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × grafiana (O. bombyliflora × O. umblicata ssp. attica) (Greece)
  • Ophrys × grampinii (O. sphegodes × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy to Sicilia).
  • Ophrys × grinincensis (O. provincialis x O. saratoi)
  • Ophrys × gumprechtii (O. bertolonii × O. fuciflora) (Italy).
    • Ophrys × gumprechtii nothosubsp. enobarbia (O. bertolonii × O. fuciflora) (Italy). Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × gumprechtii nothosubsp. gumprechtii (Italy). Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × heraultii (O. tenthredinifera × O. speculum) (Baleares).
  • Ophrys × hoeppneri (O. bombyliflora × O. sphegodes) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × hybrida (O. insectifera × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × insidiosa (O. aegirtica × O. apifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × inzengae (O. bertolonii × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × jacquetii (O. araneola × O. magniflora) (France)
  • Ophrys × jarigei (O. fusca ssp. minima × O. sphegodes)) (France)
  • Ophrys × jeanpertii (O. araneola × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × joannae (O. atlantica × O. iricolor) (N. Africa).
  • Ophrys × kalteiseniana (O. ferrum-equinum × O. reinholdii) (Greece to Turkey).
  • Ophrys × kelleri (O. exaltata subsp. arachnitiformis × O. incubacea) (France to Italy, S. Turkmenistan).
  • Ophrys × kohlmuellerorum (O. scolopax ssp. scolopax × O. sulcata) (France)
  • Ophrys × kreutziana (O. kotschyi × O. mammosa) (Cyprus).
  • Ophrys × kulpensis (O. phrygia × O. schulzei) (Turkey)
  • Ophrys × kurzeorum (O. atlantica × O. omegaifera ssp. dyris) (Spain) .
  • Ophrys × laconensis (O. arachniiformis × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × leguerrierae (O. lutea ssp. ? × O. araneola) (France)
  • Ophrys × lievreae (O. iricolor × O. tenthredinifera) (N. Africa).
  • Ophrys × lithinensis (O. omegaifera × O. sitiaca) (Crete).
  • Ophrys × llenasii (O. incubacea × O. scolopax) (SW. Europe).
  • Ophrys × luizetii (O. apifera × O. sphegodes ssp. araneola) (France)
  • Ophrys × lumenii (O. bertolonii × O. ciliata) (France)
  • Ophrys × lupiae (O. bertolonii × O. incubacea × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × lydia (O. mammosa × O. vernixia ssp. regis-ferdinandii) (Greece to Turkey).
    • Ophrys × lydia nothosubsp. lydia (Turkey). Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × lydia nothosubsp. magnessa (O. mammosa × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Greece). Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × lyrata (O. bertolonii × O. incubacea) (France)
  • Ophrys × macchiatii (O. sphegodes × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Sardegna).
  • Ophrys × maladroxiensis (O. holosericea × O. morisii) (Sardegna).
    • Ophrys × maladroxiensis nothosubsp. daissiorum (O. holosericea ssp. chestermanii × O. morisii) (Sardegna) Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × maladroxiensis nothosubsp. maladroxiensis (Sardegna) Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × manfredoniae (O. incubacea × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × maremmae (O. holosericea subsp. fuciflora × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × marmarensis (O. holosericea × O. umbilicata) (E. Aegean Is.).
  • Ophrys × mastii (O. ferrum-equinum × O. spruneri) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × methonensis (O. argolica × O. tenthredinifera) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × minuticauda (O. apifera × O. scolopax) (France, Sardegna).
    • Ophrys × minuticauda nothosubsp. donorensis (O. apifera × O. scolopax ssp. conradiae) (Sardegna).
    • Ophrys × minuticauda nothosubsp. minuticauda (France) Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × mirtiae (O. sicula × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × monachorum (O. exaltata × O. fuciflora) (France)
  • Ophrys × montis-angeli (O. biscutella × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy)
  • Ophrys × montis-leonis (O. arachniformis × O. fuciflora ssp. fuciflora) (France)
  • Ophrys × montserratensis (SW. Europe).
    • Ophrys montserratensis nothosubsp. montserratensis (Spain) Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys montserratensis nothosubsp. neoruppertii (O. bertolonii × O. scolopax) (France). Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × moreana (O. argolica × O. ferrum-equinum) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × morensis (O. incubacea × O. praecox) (Sardegna).
  • Ophrys × mulierum (O. mammosa × O. reinholdii) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × nelsonii (O. insectifera × O. scolopax) (France).
  • Ophrys × neocamusii (O. arachnitiformis × O. aurelia) (France)
  • Ophrys × neorupperti (O. aurelia × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (France)
  • Ophrys × neowalteri (O. bertolonii × O. sphegodes ssp. araneola) (France).
  • Ophrys × obscura (O. fuciflora ssp. fuciflora × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × olbiensis (O. bombyliflora × O. scolopax) (France).
  • Ophrys × panattensis (O. conradiae × O. morisii) (France)
  • Ophrys × pano-lefkaron (O. iricolor × O. mammosa) (E. Aegean Is. (Rodos) to Cyprus).
  • Ophrys × pantaliciensis (O. incubacea × O. vernixia subsp. ciliata) (Sicilia).
  • Ophrys × paphosiana (O. kotschyi × O. umbilicata) (Cyprus).
  • Ophrys × peloponnesiaca'' (O. argolica × O. mammosa) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × peltieri (O. scolopax × O. tenthredinifera) (N. Africa).
  • Ophrys × personii (O. lutea × O. tentherdiniffera) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × perspicua (O. holosericea × O. phrygia) (Turkey).
  • Ophrys × pesseiae (O. morisii × O. panattensis) (Sardegna).
  • Ophrys × philippei (O. scolopax × O. sphegodes) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × pietzschii (O. apifera × O. insectifera) (Europe).
  • Ophrys × piscinica (O. incubacea × O. lutea) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × plorae (O. cretica × O. spruneri) (Crete).
  • Ophrys × poisneliae (O. insectifera ssp. aymoninii × O. pseudobertolonii ssp. catalaunica) (Spain)
  • Ophrys × provecta (O. bilunulata × O. omegaifera subsp. dyris) (Spain).
  • Ophrys × pseudofunerea (O.funerea × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × pseudofusca (O. fusca × O. sphegodes) (S. Europe)
  • Ophrys × pseudoquadriloba (O. lutea × O. mammosa) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × pseudospruneri (O. mammosa × O. spruneri) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × pugliana (O. holosericea × O. oxyrrhynchos) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × quadriloba (O. lutea ssp. lutea × O. sphegodes) (France)
  • Ophrys × quintartiana (O. ariadnae × O. ferrum-equinum) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × ragusana (O. bombyliflora × O. exaltata) (France)
  • Ophrys × raimbaultii (O. incubacea × O. magniflora) (France)
  • Ophrys × rainei (O. bombyliflora × O. incubacea) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × rasbachii (O. argolica × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × rauschertii (O. apifera × O. insectifera × O. sphegodes) (Europe).
  • Ophrys × raynaudii (O. argolica × O. reinholdii) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × rechingeri (O. ferrum-equinum × O. mammosa) (Greece, Crete).
  • Ophrys × regis-minois (O. cretica × O. scolopax ssp. heldreichii) (Crete)
  • Ophrys × rovittellii (O. exaltata × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × royanensis (O. drumana × O. insectifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × salvatoris (O. bertolonii × O. biscutella) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × samuelii (O. drumana × O. scolopax ssp. scolopax) (France)
  • Ophrys × sanconoensis (O. exaltata × O. tenthredinifera) (Sicilia).
  • Ophrys × sanctae-sofiae (O. iricolor × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Sardegna).
  • Ophrys × sancti-leonardi (O. fusca × O. tenthredinifera). (Italy).
  • Ophrys x scheriana Riech. (O.bombyliflora x O.bremifera)
  • Ophrys × semibombyliflora (O. bombyliflora × O. exaltata ssp. arachniformis) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × simica (O. lucis × O. tenthredinifera) (E. Aegean Is.)
  • Ophrys × sivana (O. episcopalis × O. holosericea ssp. candica) (Crete to Turkey).
  • Ophrys × soller (O. apifera × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Baleares).
  • Ophrys × sommieri (O. bombyliflora × O. tenthredinifera) (Medit.)
  • Ophrys × sorrentini (O. bertolonii × O. tenthredinifera) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × souliei Soca 2005 (Ophrys aveyronensis (J.J.Wood) H.Baumann & Künkele × Ophrys fusca subsp. fusca.).) (France)
  • Ophrys × spanui (O. annae × O. tenthredinifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × spuria (O. bertolonii × O. fusca) (S. Europe).
  • Ophrys × stefaniae (O. ferrum-equinum × O. iricolor) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × sundermanniana (O. argolica × O. spruneri) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × telchinensis (O. ferrum-equinum × O. lucis) (E. Aegean Is.).
  • Ophrys × terrae-laboris (O. promontorii × O. sphegodes) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × todaroana (O. incubacea × O. sphegodes ?)) (France)
  • Ophrys × torrensis (O. argentaria × O. × pseudoscolopax) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × triadensis (O. sicula × O. tenthredinifera) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × tuscanica (O. crabronifera × O. tenthredinifera) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × tytecana (O. aymoninii × O. insectifera) (France)
  • Ophrys × varvarae (O. cretica × O. fusca) (Crete)
  • Ophrys × vernonensis (O. biscutella × O. promontorii) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × vespertilio (O. apifera × O. bertolonii) (Italy).
  • Ophrys × vicina (O. holosericea × O. scolopax) (France, SW. Sardegna).
    • Ophrys × vicina nothosubsp. corriasiana (O. holosericea ssp. chestermanii × O. scolopax ssp. conradiae) (SW. Sardegna) Tuber geophyte
    • Ophrys × vicina nothosubsp. vicina (France) Tuber geophyte
  • Ophrys × viglaensis (O. ferum-equinum var. minor × O. pruneri) (Greece)
  • Ophrys × vogatsica (O. reinholdii × O. sphegodes) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × waldmanniana (O. ferrum-equinum × O. vernixia ssp. ciliata) (Greece).
  • Ophrys × yvonneae (O. holosericea ssp. apulica × O. incubacea) (Italy).

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

CulturesheetsOphrys at CultureSheet.org

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