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Eulophia

Eulophia bouliawongo plate
Eulophia bouliawongo plate from
The Orchid Album

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
SubTribe: Cyrtopodiinae
Alliance:
Genus: Eulophia
R. Brown & Lindley 1823
Type Species
Eulophia guineensis


Eulophia, abbreviated as Eupha in horticultural trade, is a genus of 120 species of orchids

DistributionEdit

These are usually terrestrial or ground orchids, although some are epiphytes, and rarely, lithophytes. They are distributed in shady rainforests or in open scrub or woodland in the tropics and subtropics of Africa, India, Asia, Queensland (Australia), and the Americas, although most are found in Africa.

DescriptionEdit

Some species, such as Eulophia petersii, have adapted to very arid environments and are among the few orchids to have truly evolved desert living species. In the frost-free, semi-arid areas of Southern California, many Eulophia species, such as E. macra, E. petersii, E. plantaginea, and E. speciosa, can be grown outdoors year-round in well-drained pots with cactus/succulent potting mix (although E. speciosa prefers being grown in pure white sand), as long as they are given ample light through the winter and a drier winter resting period. Warmer growers, such as E. pulchra, E. keithii, and possibly even the extremely rare and difficult E. cucullata (the foxglove orchid), can probably be grown outdoors in the warmer areas of Florida and Hawaii, also.

The deciduous or evergreen leaves are usually pleated, with longitudinal veins. They are green and sheathed at the base. But in some species, the leaves may be reduced or have become brown scales. Some are leafless myco-heterotrophs.

The generally large, underground, fleshy rhizome indicates a sympodial growth habit, and this makes Eulophias fairly easy to divide and propagate, provided the grower is gentle. Many species can survive the dry season through their large bulbous ‘corms’.

The inflorescence arises from the base. It grows into a raceme. It is sometimes branched, as in the cases of E. macra and E. petersii. The inflorescences on the species with non-brancing spikes can support as many as 50 flowers; but in species with branching inflorescences, up to 150 blooms can occur per spike. While most Eulophia flowers rarely exceed 2" in width, this is often made up for by the sheer abundance of interesting blooms they produce. The sepals and the petals are alike. The lip usually has three lobes. As for most orchids, there are two pollinia for each flower. Eulophias (in bloom) can reach a height of 1.6m (6ft.). In any case, the ease of cultivation and reliability of blooming that many Eulophia species and hybrids demonstrate in captivity, in addition to their unique growth habits, makes them generally excellent orchids for amateur orchid collectors and people who like to grow plants with interesting flowers.

CultureEdit

Plants grow in cool to warm conditions with moderate lighting. Pot in fine bark or sphagnum moss. Water regularly during the summer, about once every two days and gradually reduce as winter approaches winter. Plants can be infrequently in the winter to keep the pseudobulbs from shriveling, but with hold watering until new shoots appear.

NamingEdit

It was first described by John Lindley in 1821. The name "Eulophia" was derived from the Greek words "eu" (well) and "lophos" (plume), referring to the crested ridges of the labellum (lip) in most species.

SynonymsEdit

  1. Hypodematium A. Rich.
  2. Lissochilus R. Br.
  3. Orthochilus Hochst. ex A. Rich.
  4. Platypus Small & Nash
  5. Semiphajus Gagnep.
  6. Thysanochilus Falc.

Species Edit

Natural HybridsEdit

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