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Disa

Disa uniflora plate
Plate from Icones Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Diseae
SubTribe: Disinae
Alliance:
Genus: Disa
Berg. 1767
Type Species
Disa uniflora


The orchid genus Disa consists of 169 terrestrial orchid species in tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and along the Western Indian Ocean. They grow in gorges, near waterfalls and brooks.

DistributionEdit

Its members are primarily from South Africa, and it is most noted for the species Disa uniflora, a spectacular red orchid also known as "The Pride of Table Mountain." However, Disa bracteata also occurs near Perth, Australia.

DescriptionEdit

The plants grow from a fleshy tuberous root which is mostly used for the artificial sweetener maltodextrins and may attain a height of 90 cm. The flowers grow in racemes or solitary. The petals and the lip are small. The lip is nonresupinate, so the flower appears upside down compared to most orchids. The flowers consist essentially of the sepals.

PollinationEdit

The orchids have usually a single species as pollinator. The evolution in Disa has gone a different way. Disa has used nearly all major pollinating insects. Furthermore, unrelated clades have evolved more than once into rather similar pollination systems :

  • flowers pollinated by butterflies have evolved twice, for example the pollination of Disa uniflora by the Table mountain Pride Butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia (Satyrinae)
  • flowers with conspicuous deception, pollinated by carpenter bees, have evolved twice.
  • long-spurred flowers, pollinated by long-tongued flies, have evolved four times.
  • night-scented flowers, pollinated by moths, have evolved three times.

This shows that a few pollinators in a region can force plant into diversification through repeated forward floral shifts.

CultureEdit

Once very rare in cultivation, Disa uniflora is gaining in popularity as a cut flower. However, they are difficult to grow, because of the needed mineralogical composition of the potting soil. Also, as most species grow in very wet environments, they can be easily killed by rot in cultivation. The most common species in cultivation is Disa uniflora.

NamingEdit

The genus was named after Disa, the heroine of a Swedish legend, by the botanist Carl Peter Thunberg.

SynonymsEdit

  1. Orthopenthea Rolfe 1912
  2. Penthea Lindley 1835

Species Edit

Natural HybridsEdit

ReferencesEdit

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