Chiloglottis is a small genus in the orchid family Orchidaceae.
This genus of deciduous, terrestrial orchids is indigenous to Australia and New Zealand.
The species have 1 to 4 paired oblong-lanceolate, glabrous leaves (usually two) and subterranean tuberoids. The flowers have 4 pollina. The short peduncle elongates after fertilisation of the flower. The flower is insect-pollinated by sexual deception (pseudocopulation) of specific wasps. The lip has raised calli, whose structures mimic the flightless female of the wasp pollinator.
Plants are deciduous and should be grown in cool to intermediate temperatures. Plants are grown in a terrestrial mix of soil, leaf litter, sand, and peat. Keep the mix moist during growing season and reduce watering as the leaves die down in the late spring and summer. Keep in moderate to bright light.
The botanical name of the genus is derived from Greek words, referring to the tongue-shaped lip.
The type species is Chiloglottis diphylla R.Br., Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen: 323 (1810), that has now become a synonym of Chiloglottis reflexa [LaBill.] Druce 1917.
In 2005 5 species were transferred to the new genus Myrmechila but was not except by RBG Kew.
- Chiloglottis × pescottiana R.S.Rogers, 1918
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- Peakall, R., Bower, C. C., Logan, A. E., and Nicol H. I. (1997). "Confirmation of the hybrid origin of Chiloglottis X pescottiana R. S. Rogers (Orchidaceae: Diurideae). 1. Genetic and morphometric analysis.". Australian Journal of Botany 45: 839-855.
- Jones, D.L. (1998). "A taxonomic review of Chiloglottis in Tasmania.". Australian Orchid Research 3 (62).
- Jones, D.L., Clements, M.A., Sharma, I.K. , Mackenzie, A.M. & Molloy, B. (2002). "Nomenclatural notes arising from studies into the Tribe Diurideae (Orchidaceae).". The Orchadian 13 (10).
- Jones, D.L. & Clements, M.A. (2005). "Miscellaneous nomenclature notes and changes in Australian, New Guinea and New Zealand Orchidaceae.". The Orchadian 15 (1).